Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic health problems in the world that causes disability and chronic pain with reduced mobility and is a progressive degenerative disease in weight-bearing joints such as the knee. The pathology of the joint resulting from OA includes loss of cartilage volume and cartilage lesions leading to inflammation of the articular joint structures; its incidence and progression are associated with a variety of risk factors.

An injury can cause you pain, limit your movement and the recovery period can be long and frustrating. Moreover, to try to fix the problem, many doctors and pain management specialists recommend surgery, inactivity, or longtime use of pain medications. Sadly, even with these approaches, conditions can become worse over time, and long-term use of certain medications can become problematic itself.

When typical treatment options include facing the scalpel, taking medication, or remaining inactive, it’s no wonder athletes are loving the speed and efficacy of stem cell therapy.

Stem cell therapy regenerates new healthy tissue to aid healing. These treatments have reduced the need for prescription medication and surgery and are proving to be a helpful tool for athletes trying to manage or eliminate pain.

Key points

Osteoarthritis (OA) occurs when the cartilage inside a joint breaks down causing pain and stiffness

People over 45 are more at risk, but younger people can be affected too

Exercise is one of the best ways to manage osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It’s most likely to develop in people over the age of 45, but it can also occur in younger people.

OA was once thought to be an inevitable part of aging, a result of a lifetime of ‘wear and tear’ on joints. However it’s now understood that OA is a complex condition, and may occur as a result of many factors. The good news is that many of these factors can be prevented.

Knee Osteoarthritis Stage 1: Minor

The first stage of knee osteoarthritis involves minor bone spur growth in the knee. Usually, you do not experience any pain or discomfort considering there is very minimal wear on the knee joint at this time.

Knee Osteoarthritis Stage 2: Mild

This is more of a mild stage of OA, here is where you will start to see symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Bone spur growth will start to occur during this stage, but the cartilage will remain a healthy size. This just means that the space between your bones is normal and the bones are not rubbing or scraping against each other. There may be tenderness in the knee area. The synovial fluid is still present, which helps to reduce friction and increase movement.

Knee Osteoarthritis Stage 3: Moderate

During this 3rd stage of OA, the cartilage between your bones begins to narrow causing more damage to the knee. This is known as a moderate stage of knee osteoarthritis, you may start to experience more pain and discomfort during your usual everyday activity. It is possible that when running or walking you will experience more extreme pain; the pain may also occur when kneeling or bending. After sitting for a long period of time, you may start to notice that your knee is very stiff. It is important to stay as active as you can doing the exercises that your doctor has assigned.

Knee Osteoarthritis Stage 4: Severe

This is the most severe stage of knee osteoarthritis, at this point, the space between the bones is severely reducing. The cartilage in our knee is getting to the point where it is barely there, and you are experiencing pain consistently. During this stage, one should expect to experience great pain and discomfort when walking or moving the knee joint at all.


There are many things that can increase your chances of developing OA including:

Your age – people over 45 are more at risk
Being overweight or obese
Family history of OA
Significant injury, damage or overuse of a joint.


An individual may not notice symptoms in the early stages of OA.

If a person has knee pain, the doctor will ask about personal and family medical histories. They will then perform a full physical examination and order diagnostic tests.

The doctor will also ask:

  • when and where the person is experiencing pain and stiffness
  • how this affects their daily life
  • whether they are taking any medications

The doctor will examine the joints, test their overall range of motion, and check for damage. They will pay close attention to any areas that are tender, painful, or swollen.

MRI scans and joint fluid tests can help detect early signs of OA. The doctor may perform a joint aspiration, which involves removing some fluid with a needle and sending it to a laboratory for testing.

X-rays can also show damage to the joint.

Blood tests can help to rule out other diseases, such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

Patients may benefit from a unique non-surgical procedure using our BioCelle MSC and growth factors that may help repair damaged tissue, reduce pain and promote healing. During the procedure,BioCelle MSC are cultured in the laboratory and they are then injected into the areas to be treated.